Oldest country in Europe
SAN MARINO – the capital of the Republic of San Marino, the state is located in the north-eastern part of the peninsula, surrounded by the territory of Italy. San Marino is the oldest of the modern states of Europe. According to a legend, the city of San Marino was founded in 301 AD. The story of its origin is as follows: one of the first Christians in the Adriatic, stonecutter from Dalmatia Marina was forced to flee from the persecution of their opponents on the Mount Titano. Here he and his supporters founded the Christian community. Even during his lifetime Marino was canonized (hence the prefix “SAN”). This locality, the current then a republic, was named in honor of the founder of San Marino. Small community on Mount Titano was called “Land of San Marino”, and later the Free City of San Marino “and finally” The Republic of San Marino (first appears in documents in the Xth century).
The earliest written evidence of the existence of an independent community on Mount Titano dates from the end of the Vth until the beginning of the VIth century. Around this time, began construction of fortifications and city walls on Mount Titano. San Marino – the only state that fully retains its autonomy after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Length of the borders of San Marino are just 38 km away. From the south-west to north-east the country stretches only for 12.6 km from southeast to northwest the distance is only 8.6 miles. It is a country surrounded on all sides by the territory of Italy. San Marino is a political and cultural center of the country. In ancient times this area spread a little down from Mount Titano and remained so until 1463, when the inhabitants of the Republic sided with the union against Sigismund Pandolfo Malatesta of Rimini ruler. The war was victorious, and Pope Pius II gave Pikolomini to the city of San Marino in appreciation for their participation in the war. Faetano joined the San Marino voluntarily. Since 1463 the territory of San Marino has remained unchanged.
The population of San Marino is 24,599 inhabitants, which is divided as follows: the capital which bears the same name, is home to 4,385 people; Serravalle – 7,706; Borgo Maggiore – 5.127; Faetano – 795; Domagnano – 2.146; Kezanova – 812; Acquaviva – 1.240; Fiorentino – 1,716; Montegiardino – 672.